Integrating all the best ideas for a much needed space elevator for far greater safety, affordability, and now doable and easily deployed in less time… Mother Earth calling – “She’s buying a stairway to heaven”
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Welcome to the team of future thinkers, investors, and yes, astronauts (we can all go to space, one day we must!), a think tank designed to create the first space elevator (SE), deploy satellites, people, and cargo into space, what will soon be a multi-trillion dollar industry, and eliminate expensive, dangerous launches. We must be able to have infrastructure providing lift to orbit… not expendable (even reusable does not close the equation) launches. We are open to all kinds of ideas and my idea does fall into a great solution, as the cable designed to support an elevator well beyond geosynchronous orbit, or GEO (where a space station [SS] is always in the same position relative to a fixed observer on earth) was something thought to be impossible because under gravitational pull from earth on cable, fighting equal and opposite centrifugal force (the inertial reaction, or resistance to acceleration, to the centripetal force pulling you toward the center of the earth, like when you drive your car around a corner and your body goes outward) will snap, even with the toughest of high tensile strength, low weight (density) material, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) or single crystal graphene (SCG) are used. See How to Make CNTs.
But now we’re back, as my computer modeling, employing the idea of a hollow tube or Space Hose (SH), also called the Space Elevator and Coaxial Cable with Internal Material Transportation, or SEaCCIMT for short, instead of a solid cylinder or ribbon, much lighter, the advantage over a cylinder but like a high-leverage ribbon (when it’s compressed and elliptical) will allow semi-permanent flow inside hose of hydrogen and oxygen to power counterweight (CW) base-station at end of hose(s) with rockets to eject propellant away from earth to prevent hose from snapping, making sure it always has a little slack, never too tight or taunt. Just as important, all major think tanks about space elevators ignored Kepler’s laws concerning any object, even if part of an elevator shaft, presumed relatively non-rigid, that will orbit around the Earth at greater time intervals, or periods, the further away the object is from Earth. So rockets are needed to prevent the CW and SH from wrapping around the planet. The hose would have to extend overall to at least 60,000 miles in altitude for the CW at the end (unless hose thickens in outward direction. It would have to extend further with increasing diameter/thickness without a heavy “bulb” at the very end) to create centrifugal forces contrasting gravity, or else the assembly crashes back to earth. The initial first of three x 60,000-mile hoses is extended in different segments after numerous rocket missions where GEO SS is constructed first, both outward from the SS at GEO, and inward toward the Earth Starting Station (ESS), as rocket launches are only required for the first hose of 60,000 miles. So a hexagonal-sided elevator is stable once two additional SH’s are dragged by first elevator upward, when only one hose is required in the beginning and the other hoses don’t require rocket launches. One hose supplies the CW rockets with oxygen, the other two with hydrogen, as rocket fuel requires the 2:1 ratio of H2 to O2 for maximum (loudest) burning efficiency, and conveniently starts that way as water (H2O) at the equator of the Pacific Ocean where
electrolysis converts it into separate gases. Or, you can have concentric hoses, a true coaxial cable, with O2 and H2 in different “rings”. An SH can eject rocket propellant inward, outward, or north, south, east, and west, while hose extensions are added, and then half the day in the lifespan of the SH assembly when it is forced outward during the two apogee phases of an elliptical orbit where the CW experiences a greater force outward. The other 12 hours, H2 and O2 can be stored for the next apogee fuel ejections, or other purposes.
See Why Solid Cable Will Break, as the basis of my hollow cable or hose idea.
A simulated view of spiral single crystal graphene (SCG) (left) for the SH. Graphene is a highly compact carbon matrix as a sheet, same as CNT, only CNT are tubes. Being non-isotropic, meaning extremely strong in the x-y directions (North, South, East, West), compressible by elevator rollers for more leverage than when traveling up or down a cylinder, and low density, knowing the
sheet will not shear or tear in the x-y direction, but having elasticity in the z direction with PVP (providone) or silicone (melting point 300º Fahrenheit, above the 250° of outer space) coating, and able to stretch to an extended length at apogee to tolerate greater stress or strain without breaking, especially if two strips of SCG are woven together diagonally, even with greater stress and strain placed on it. See Braided Hoses. This is critical as the strongest composite material, or filler, is 0.9 GPa, but SCG is 1 TPa, plenty strong enough to resist breaking. With a long enough hysteresis that will allow many extensions at the apogees of orbit before analysis is conducted to dictate replacement, as nothing is totally elastic or brittle, everything is slightly ductile, but with the longer lifespan of a more elastic SH, especially when rockets are used to prevent over-extension, one of two (the other being torque from spinning Ferris Wheels) are backup solutions for more insurance. However, some prefer high stiffness or Young’s modulus in the z-direction. The argument that dictates absolute high isotropic tensile strength in all directions requires a second single crystal graphene spiral helix overlapping the first one, covering the gaps over the black PVP/silicone-filled gaps. The sacrifice should be a larger and/or stiffer hose required at COM, possibly tapered and dropping off exponentially away from COM and toward ground and CW, see Why a Cable Will Break. A coaxial cable (one hose inside another) is possible, and stronger, with hydrogen in the inner hose, oxygen in the outer hose, to make more than one separate hose unnecessary, and any small amount of the very small H2 molecule leaking into the outer interior region will not cause any serious consequences.
A small capsule (left), either launched from Earth with SH tethered below, or assembled in space to drop SH in sections, will expel rocket propellant in 6 directions to maintain “slack” and prevent SH from breaking. Rocket firing from CW to the west is necessary, as according to Kepler’s law, the period of the orbit of CW at a greater radius (60,000 miles versus 22,500 miles for stationary GEO) is longer. Without tangential rocket emissions, the SH will wrap around the Earth.
A polymer-single-crystal-graphene – reinforced spiral hose will transmit H2 and O2 through the inner cavity(ies) after electrolysis to strip two-parts hydrogen for every one part oxygen, for maximum rocket “loudness” and efficiency. If O2 and H2 have to share same hose, they can be separated by a viscous oil, meniscus or “moving gasket”, so the ESS will use gasoline/charcoal generators to convert sea water, available in high abundance at an equatorial Pacific island or boat, with solar panels/wind turbine as backup. The moving gasket will allow a liquid diet, nitrogen, and other substances to be transported. The hose can be effectively, quickly, and inexpensively manufactured with a 3D injection molder printer, see http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6439/5/4/40/pdf. On the other hand, you can have 3 hoses for 3 rocket-injectors, 2 H2 and 1 O2, that eject H2/O2 propellant 10-50% of the time, mostly away from the earth, sometimes in any of 5 other perpendicular directions. “Tension” sensors, backed-up by a computer that controls timed and spontaneous fuel ejections for more burnt fuel outward when there is more tension, will be necessary, with a reserve and 24/7 human surveillance. An additional set of 2 hoses can extend to a total of 60,000 miles from earth for a highly eccentric (long, flat elliptical path, or high aspect ratio) orbit, so space crafts/artificial satellites benefit from the high tangential velocity of the hose-system alone, even without fuel, and can easily be slung into an orbit to approach Jupiter and use a slingshot effect from its intense gravitational pull to go deeper and faster into outer space, well beyond Pluto. The goal, more than anything, is to prevent
cable/hose from breaking, keeping it in a permanent bent-shape and never too taunt. The role of the 6 rockets at CW is to keep the elliptical orbit of the CW as circular as possible, or having the lowest possible eccentricity, so that a predefined minimum bend in the hose can be defined as the aspect ratio of the length of hose (60,000 miles) versus deflection from straight position, say, 500 miles, a catenary shape, which pulls the CW inward about 200 miles. 200 miles is an arbitrary “comfort zone” for a radial-direction shortening of the semi-major axis to a point less than average radius. A semi-stationary cable, by fiat, expects to have a very high orbital eccentricity such that preventing atmospheric re-entry becomes difficult at GEO, with Coriolis forces considered as well. But re-positioning rockets, and that means lateral directions as well, can retain the desired position. In conclusion, the energy expended during two 6 hour apogee phases by the CW rockets, and/or energy from torque of “Ferris Wheels” (see Ferris Wheels) must exceed the energy of the SH centrifugal force, with increasing help from the gravity of the SH as the CW moves inward, and then must slow down, to prevent the shearing of 1-2 cm diameter hose, but not exerting too much force else causing the CW to crash back to Earth, finding an equilibrium point that may require 24/7 “eccentricity adjustment” for the most circular orbit possible. A thickening and/or toughening of the SH at GEO, which is COM, should be recommended if more rocket launches are affordable. See http://wiki.c2.com/?SpaceElevator). Larger cylinders/hoses are needed to support heavier elevators, that must deploy satellites about the size of a Volkswagen, but the increased elasticity of a spiral hose means more ΔL/L tolerance for an elevator, far lighter than the total weight of the hose itself it must hold up, and less cross-section area is offset by what is a much lighter object, I suggest to be 1-2 cm in diameter, and far less than the 100 Mega-Newtons of tension a cable would bear (think of surgical tubing for a sling-shot, far more elastic than a solid rubber tube). And future calculations prove just rocket fuel and Ferris Wheels, even as backup, are not an exclusive and legitimate insurance policy. More elasticity can help, something to be expected with a higher diameter, thin-walled hose, with a higher ratio of HDPE to CNT. The mistaken myth is that the true requirement of hose rocket emissions and torque created by Ferris Wheel counterweights is that their combined force must exceed the tension, gravity plus centrifugal force, minus the breaking force of the hose at it’s weakest point, the center of mass at GEO, with a gradual reduction in thickness and resistance to breaking in opposing directions. But this is only for a brief period of time, that will be shown by conservation of energy equations. CW rocket and Ferris Wheel torque can engage right after CW leaves perigee (closest point to Earth) for apogee (furthest point from Earth) where gravity is less, centrifugal force is greater, in the direction of travel, and spinning wheel torque with possible H2-O2 ejection backup need not be employed (tension minus breaking force of SH), redefining the orbit of the SS at GEO as closer to the Earth, but compensating when leaving apogee for perigee, where necessary deceleration of CW Ferris Wheels means acceleration in the opposite direction (torque pushing CW away from Earth), which is affordable as there is so much more slack in the SH during perigee phase it can afford to be pushed outward. In essence, you strive for a human-made circular orbit. The thickening of SH at COM does not effect the gravity plus centrifugal force high tension threat, unlike when more weight is far from the COM, but the increased number of rocket launches would probably be un-affordable unlike when you have a “kill many birds with one stone” solution here. A well-made non-hollow cable could employ Ferris Wheels without the need for material transfer, but there is the danger of no-backup.
A space elevator is a space tether that is attached to a planetary body. For example, on Earth, a space elevator would go from the equator to well above geosynchronous orbit, unlike typical space tethers which are satellites with a short tether attached to a mass powered by ions from ionosphere. A space elevator does not need to be powered as a rotovator (short space tether) does, because it gets any required angular momentum from the planetary body. The disadvantage is that it is much longer, and for many planets a space elevator cannot be constructed from known materials. See momentum exchange tether.
The force produced by ejected hose rocket fuel at CW plus torque from spinning Ferris Wheels (figure left) must exceed, for a short period of time, centrifugal force just enough to allow gravity to overcome “outward” centrifugal force now causing CW to approach Earth without a tightening effect to break hose. This means you must increase the number of “artificial apogees” where SH must travel away from Earth just as often as it travels toward Earth. The two approaches toward an apogee that would surely break the hose (and center of Earth is at one of two foci, so one apogee is greater than the other), not because of combined gravity and centrifugal force but tension from a straight, elongated, breaking hose is prevented by a sinusoidal path. For better insurance, if combined torque and rocket force at CW exceeds tension (gravity plus centrifugal force when SH is tight) minus breaking force of hose at GEO (COM), there might be an effort to thicken and/or toughen SH at GEO. If hose (SH) at COM is wider (2 cm diameter, 1 mm wall thickness, versus 1 cm and 0.5 mm respectively) with more tensile strength from greater CNT and/or graphene concentration (95% versus 5%) the breaking or “critical” length is substantially increased, but then too many rocket trips will still be anticipated. If a hose is always intended to be a catenary and not “tough” for meteorite strikes would be considered a good thing, as meteorites are more likely to deflect off a non-rigid hose for less damage, and is more tolerant of stress and strain from elevator rollers. Initial high torque, heavy spinning CW mass can potentially bring in SH to something much less than 60,000 miles, lunar rock or asteroid collection for CW, such that initial high torque from CW Ferris Wheels only is required briefly to allow gravity to overcome centrifugal force half the time during apogee phases.
x = (R + a · sin(n·θ)) · cos(θ) + xc
y = (R + a · sin(n·θ)) · sin(θ) + yc
R is circle’s radius
a is sinusoid amplitude
θ is the parameter (angle), from 0 to 2π
xc, yc is circle’s center point
n is number of sinusoidal “leaf petals” on circle
The natural central force, beginning with Kepler, with the help of Brahe, determining all paths of a smaller object around (revolving) a much larger body to be elliptical, but explained by Newton, dictates there must be some eccentricity, it can never be circular. But the ebb and flow of rockets and spinning CW Ferris Wheels will cause resistance to the more outward apogees, and resistance to the more inward perigees. These are four points where under the duress of humans and the Ferris Wheels a circular orbit is possible, but is it desirable? The sinusoidal path means a less eccentric orbit, and fewer high speeds at critical junctions because of absence of a sling-shot effect to send satellites deep into space with less H2 and O2. Also, much like a sailboat that “tacks”, there is hope for a Ferris Wheel spinning perpendicular to direction of revolution at the extreme east edges of petal, creating the most momentum for CW possible in eastward direction, then slowly decelerating when approaching and leaving closest point to Earth, between the lead petals, so reverse-acceleration causing presumed westward direction is actually at a high angle with respect to tangential velocity. Also, mini-Ferris Wheels mounted on the edges of the bigger Ferris Wheels can accelerate in one direction, causing eastward push, change direction at the top and bottom (cancelling out any impact on up or down motion of the CW) and then accelerate the opposite direction when on the opposing east side versus west, which is the best way to guarantee almost constant eastward push. This is the one critical argument dictating a strong-enough cable will not be sufficient, as Kepler drag requires torque from wheels and/or rocket emissions, even with a tethered network of SE’s and CW’s.
In addition, 24/7 H2 and O2 are not only for rocket-propelled slack of SH, but intended for fueling/refueling space crafts, oxygen and water for astronauts for long term space residency that cannot be easily recycled, as well as food capillaries, nitrogen (N2) for higher-temperature liquid freezing necessities, etc. Thinner hoses that are less likely to support liquid/solid transport are lighter and easier to launch, and can transfer H2, O2, and N2 only, with hydrogen and oxygen recombined for water at SS, and rocket fuel at the CW, for what now should be called the Hose Stabilizer (HS). Liquid and solid add weight and tension to the cable, and even though rockets will always be there for correction to too much tension, it is best not to over-challenge it. Food can otherwise be transferred by elevator, grown on a space farm easily with intense radiation and recycled carbon dioxide, with fruits/vegetables, stem-cell meat, etc.
See Space Hose Dimensions for analysis of hose composition, non-concentric and non-spiral, and stiff in z-direction (isotropic).
The Falcon Heavy rocket, with reusable side boosters, costs $90 million. For a fully expendable variant of the rocket, which can lift a theoretical maximum of 64 tons to low-Earth orbit, or 58 metric tons, the price is $150 million. While it is not certified yet, SpaceX says its rocket can hit all Department of Defense reference orbits, however big and gnarly the military wants to build its satellites, and whatever crazy orbit it wants to put them into, the Falcon Heavy can do it. This means about 20 trips to engage first into GEO to unfurl the first spools of 37,000 to 60,000 miles of 1 cm diameter/0.5 mm thick-wall of hose/cable, about 30 trips for a coaxial cable, not counting rocket missions to build SS, CW, and the 1/3 reduction for the same number of rocket missions assumes CW is built with Moon-mined materials. There is the additional cost, of course, of building ESS with multiple elevators, a moon station, and the cost of fabricating 37,000 to 180,000 miles of hosing. The minimum total cost for rocket missions would be $150 million (for SpaceX, but competition from other sources, like the Chinese Space Program, could cause the prices to become much less expensive), so we will spend far less than a proposed CNT-single-crystal-graphene(SCG)-space contingency, Obayashi, who are willing to spend $500 billion without a doable model, proposed to be built by 2050, even after GoogleX dashed others’ hopes in 2012 with the 1-meter breakage study for a single high tensile-strength, low density CNT-only solid cable. I am not a metallurgist or chemist, a physicist mind you, but while breaking length is now negligible because of my proposed permanent slack in hose/cable, the decreased expense in a hollow cable might be offset by the production cost of extruding CNT and/or SCG with a hollow center. If the industry is doing well because of the “you win, I win” benefits of the CNT for other things, they can be mass-produced in a tax-diminishing society where everything becomes cheaper and terrestrial applications can fund our efforts, the way we’re trying to do it with donations, where there will be a raffle for donors to be considered as space tourists (see Donate/lottery), products, etc., and I will add to it a foreign business license with stock options, instant profit sharing (see Become a Member and Profit!, job opportunities as well) with “industry merging” and all online revenue collections, lotteries, charging memberships (we can be affiliates to each other, the way I am encouraging people to promote the URL “SpaceHose.com” with your own creative logo, with your own memorabilia) and be rewarded affiliate commission, online gaming, sell CPC/CPM advertising on Web pages, video, or even in space, etc., many great ideas, but the key is paying for advertising, especially as a start-up. I can probably get Facebook advertising, the charge as little as 0.0003 cents/impression, if I pool together many investors. My other advertising websites “integration of the best ideas” – https://www.PandaBusters.com (available now, multi-tier affiliate programs with high search engine rankings), https://www.InvestorCommune.com, and https://www.MyRatingSearch.com (under construction) will allow us to promote this portal and yours to sell what we all want to sell and raise capital for a much needed space race.
See Ferris Wheels for what can be a more practical quasi-permanent backup for ensuring SH never becomes too tight. The space elevators will be cheap enough such that four can be constructed at near 90-degree angles to each other on the equator on the ocean with boats for ESS (Micronesia, or west Pacific, Easter Island, or east Pacific, the Atlantic Ocean, and the west Indian Ocean, near Sri Lanka) and tethered together at the CW’s. Two SH’s being pulled inward by perigee will compensate for apogee phases for two other SH’s being tugged outward. Hence, the disadvantages of too much SH tension can also be overcome with a network of four space elevator cables with four CW’s tethered together. See Tethered Space Elevator Network.
It will be necessary to leave the solar system someday as the sun is producing too many neutrinos and will eventually explode. Changing climate and weather patterns, and sunspot increase with the other 7 planets getting warmer, means there is a need for a lot more satellites for high-resolution Doppler to better predict weather patterns well in advance, detect incoming asteroids and remote earth-like planets, prevent bottlenecks with cable TV/Internet/cell phone services, useful in the many remote rural areas where terrestrial repeaters are too expensive, require too much energy, and take too long to build, without all the regulations and politics. Satellites will facilitate better navigation for mapping roads, making all cars and other transport vehicles remote controlled for safer and faster service (high resolution for critical mass, or volume times density of vehicles achieved with satellite network, so defiance by terrestrial cell phone repeater firms that will not unite to share bandwidth from greed will be overcome) now find missing people and fugitives optically, with radar, low-light-high-sensitivity, and infrared, assist those with health needs, victims of natural disasters, etc.
With evidence for the Woodward/Mach “Stargate” Effect, traveling at near-relativistic speeds should be possible, taking advantage of internal non-propellant spacecraft as with the human made flying saucers experienced by Bob Lazar in 1989 with gravity waves produced by heavy elements (Moscovium). Some propellant ejection from not only H2/O2 but U-235, for linear travel and circular oscillation to capitalize on Bernoulli air foil effect in atmosphere, moment of inertia and Woodward/Mach Effect, preferably near heavy objects like Jupiter, the sun, and human-made dual micro-singularities can catapult humans at relativistic (> c for reverse time-travel?) speeds, for journeys to distant planets in what will seem like a short period of time because of Lorentz time dilation. Even without planets, nuclear power along with Stanley Kuprick’s “Ferris Wheels” to simulate gravity, as weightlessness is never good for the body long term, will make it possible to live in areas outside the earth’s atmosphere and outside the solar system after the supernova.
To capitalize on my other inventions, ending all spam (e-mail, Web page, etc., see https://www.PandaBusters.com) with power-to-the-consumers regex and GUI acceptance or rejection of not only keywords but number ranges for prices and MLM commissions, extremely critical, as those who are new to our debut can be very-high up a pyramid that sustains itself for life, potential insane wealth, as 35% of gross goes to those who earn referrals through the newsletter down-line.
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The obstacles to a space elevator, now that breaking issues have been addressed, include meteorite strikes, lightening, the bending of the SH from Coriolis forces (forces caused by rotating Earth), lightening, acid rain, high outer space temperatures, wear and tear from rollers/brakes applied to SH. However, tensile strength and elasticity will again show that the life-span of the SH will probably be longer than expected where all these factors are concerned. The threat of a hose coming back to Earth at high velocity can be prepared for with a transducer disengaging the SH at a locking-junction at ESS level and one of a least two rockets taking the SH upward, away from Earth, to be mended or recycled (a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean along the equator, far from populated islands, is the best choice for ESS with less of a risk of a human being injured or killed). Centrifugal force with, and again the reason the umbilical for H2-O2 is essential, the ability to pull hose away from Earth if broken, with robot-spacecrafts that can be placed permanently in space to recover damaged or broken hose means mending and recycling is always an option. There will be the purchase of a lot of insurance, and voluntary computer simulations will seriously defray the cost of project before prototype is built ad tested.
So in a nutshell, a space hose, or Kevlar umbilical with one hose inside another (coaxial, hydrogen in the middle, oxygen in the outer shell) means a space cable with elevator that won’t break, not because of the strength of the material, much cheaper to manufacture than anything with CNT of SCG, because of:
- 400,000 mile cord as rim around Earth 60,000 miles away, to facilitate 4 space hose/elevators at 90 degrees apart along equator, two Pacific Ocean, one Atlantic Ocean, and one Indian Ocean. The centrifugal force outward of two opposing hoses/cables brings the other two inward, and vice versa. There is still the issue, however, of Kepler drag, where the outer rim revolves more slowly per cycle around Earth than parts of the hose/elevator closer to the Earth
- Solar powered torque wheels that also serve as counterweights and manned capsules, spinning clockwise inward at a high rate of angular acceleration, causing CW to be pulled inward and prevent breaking of hose, and vise versa when at nearest points to Earth to prevent orbit from getting too close to Earth. Torque wheels mounted along wheels in perpendicular direction (axis of rotation points along direction of elliptical orbit) overcome Kepler drag by pushing CW’s eastward, so entire space hose/elevator is always in geosynchronous orbit, where all 60,000 miles of SH’s are always revolving around Earth once per 24 hour period
- Rocket fuel, or hydrogen and oxygen, from ocean after electrolysis converts sea water into H2 and O2, can be used as backup to prevent space hose/cable from breaking or getting too close to Earth, as well as pushing CW’s eastward, and fueling interplanetary spaceships. O2 can be used for constant source of breathing, combined with H2 for water, and other materials can be intermittently pumped through coaxial hoses as well
More than one SH (3 are ideal, one every other corner of a hexagon-shaped elevator) mean meteor strikes will allow time for repair if one SH is damaged, especially when coaxial hoses means inner hose will not likely be damaged when outer hose is damaged). Rockets placed about every 100 miles on SH can be deployed to drag each 100-mile segment of hose into space if hose breaks, to prevent any material from returning to Earth with a high force that would potentially do a lot of damage.
James Dante Wood
Physicist, computer scientist, and sole proprietor of SpaceHose.com