Integrating all the best ideas for a much needed space race of private sector enthusiasts…
Welcome to the team of future thinkers, investors, and yes, astronauts (we can all go to space, one day we must!), a think tank designed to create the first space elevator (SE), deploy satellites, people, and cargo into space, what will soon be a multi-trillion dollar industry, and eliminate launches. We must be able to have infrastructure providing lift to orbit… not expendable (even reusable does not close the equation) launches. We are open to all kinds of ideas and my idea does fall into a great solution, as the cable designed to support an elevator well beyond geosynchronous orbit, or GEO (where a space station [SS] is always in the same position relative to a fixed observer on earth) was something thought to be impossible because under gravitational pull from earth on cable, fighting equal and opposite centrifugal force (the inertial reaction, or resistance to motion, to centripetal force pulling you toward the center of the earth, like when you drive your car around a corner and your body goes outward) will snap, even with the toughest of high tensile strength, low weight (density) material, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) are used. But now we’re back, as my computer modeling, employing the idea of a hollow tube or Space Hose (SH), also called the Space Elevator and Coaxial Cable with Internal Material Transport, or SEaCCIMT for short, instead of a solid cylinder or ribbon, much lighter, the advantage of a cylinder but high-leverage ribbon (when it’s compressed and elliptical) will allow permanent flow inside hose of hydrogen and oxygen to power center-of-mass (COM) base-station rockets to eject propellant away from earth to prevent hose from snapping, making sure it always has a little slack. The hose would have to extend overall to at least 47,000-60,000 km in altitude for counterweight (CW) at the end (unless hose thickens in outward direction, but would have to extend further with same shape/diameter and with heavy “bulb” at the very end) to compensate with centrifugal forces to overcome gravity, but a shorter SH can eject rocket propellant inward more often than outward until hose extensions are added. A second SS alone should be heavy enough, if at the right altitude beyond GEO, to serve as a CW.
CNT alone as a cylinder will break at 1 meter, correctly pointed out by a study by GoogleX, as gravity versus centripetal force is too great for a cable where center of mass (COM) is at GEO, or 35,786 km (22,236 mi). The total gravitational field on all points when the cable is tight is:
g = – G x M/r^2 + ω^2 x r
g is the acceleration of apparent gravity, pointing down (negative) or up (positive) along the vertical cable (m s−2),
a is the centrifugal acceleration, pointing up (positive) along the vertical cable (m s−2),
G is the gravitational constant (m3 s−2 kg−1)
M is the mass of the Earth (kg)
r is the distance from that point to Earth’s center (m),
ω is Earth’s rotation speed (radian/s).
At some point up the cable, the two terms (downward gravity and upward centrifugal force) are equal and opposite. Objects fixed to the cable at that point put no weight on the cable. This altitude (r1) depends on the mass of the planet and its rotation rate. Setting actual gravity equal to centrifugal acceleration gives:
r 1 = ( G ⋅ M / ω ^ 2 ) ^ 1 / 3
A polymer / CNT – reinforced hose will transmit H2 and O2 through the inner cavity after electrolysis to strip two-parts hydrogen for every one part oxygen, for maximum rocket “loudness” and efficiency, separated by a viscous oil or “moving gasket”, so the earth starting station (ESS) will use gasoline/charcoal generators to convert sea water, available in high abundance at an equatorial Pacific island or boat, with solar panel backup. On the other hand, hydrolyses can be performed at the COM SS with solar panels, preferably the very high electron to photon ratio of InGaAs multi-junction technology, which will produce electricity sufficient for 6 rockets that eject H2/O2 propellant 10-50% of the time, mostly away from the earth, sometimes in any of 5 other perpendicular directions. An additional cable can extend to a total of 100,000 km from earth for the Pearson orbit, so the tangential velocity of the cable alone, with spacecrafts without fuel, can easily be slung into an orbit to approach Jupiter and use a slingshot effect from its intense gravitational pull to go deep into space, well beyond Pluto. The goal is to prevent cable/hose from snapping, keeping it in a bent-shape and never too taunt. It will be extremely lightweight and easy to transport with smaller rockets and elevator missions, and convey 24/7 H2 and O2 not only for slack of SH, but for fueling/refueling space crafts, oxygen and water for astronauts for long term space residency that cannot be easily recycled, as well as food capillaries, nitrogen (N2) for higher-temperature liquid freezing necessities, etc. Thinner hoses that are less likely to support liquid/solid transport are lighter and easier to launch, and can transfer H2, O2, and N2 only, with hydrogen and oxygen recombined for water. Liquid and solids add weight and tension to the cable, and even though rockets will always be there for correction to too much tension, it is best not to over-challenge it. Food can otherwise be transferred by elevator, grown on space farm, with fruits/vegetables, stem-cell meat, etc.
The elevator that moves up and down the SH can compress it and be move along it with rollers driven by three gasoline engines in one direction with hydraulic pressure pushing elevator upward with high pressure below it, suction on liquid in tube above also adding to upward momentum. A magnetic field from superconducting magnetic that has affinity for H+ atoms in inner hose (top) and repulsion from OH- molecules in inner hose (bottom), for extra lift on top of roller engines, can also increase velocity, for partial electrolysis initiated at ESS. With the benefit of the pinching of the motor’s rollers on the SH, causing an ellipsoidal “ribbon” effect, for a better grip, the ability to get crew/cargo to GSO can occur in three to five days.
Kevlar was once considered as a cheaper, more readily available exclusive substitute for CNT, with more elasticity, but because conventional Kevlar has about 1/18 the tensile strength/density ratio of CNT (3.62 GPa vs. 62 GPa), it would be impractical as a non-hose cable, because of the extra weight required to overcome breaking length limitations. The proposed new polymer substitute is high-density poly ethylene (HDPE) which is non-H2 permeable. Both have about the same density, 1.6 g/cm^3 for CNT, 1.44 g/cm^3 for Kevlar. The break would most likely occur in the middle, which can be thicker, but require a 20,000-times more dense region, even with breaking length at 1/10 the total distance. Software modeling cannot develop a non-hose cable concept low-weight and affordable enough, where you have to assume too-many possible bottle-necks. Multi-threading was another proposal, but too many threads are required for a reasonably small elevator presents obstacles. 5 times the number of rocket payloads, with the first hose/cable necessary for the middle of the elevator, can be anticipated and funded for 5 total hose/cables, although offset by a “drag” of new hose/cable segments from the earth base-station that can thread the four “corners” of the outer-elevator and guarantee longer hose/cable-complex lifespan, most importantly, more safety. Unless the hose thickens outward to capitalize on centrifugal force, there will be a need for a large counterweight (CW) that must be launched as usable dead weight at the end, between 60,000-144,000 km away from earth), with elevator missions as an option for dragging additional cables, even if CW has not be created, as rocket fuel can eject toward earth at GEO until CW is completed, eliminating more rocket launches. It’s predecessor can be mass-produced as wireless coaxial cables for cable TV/Internet are now ramping up in China (and we can consolidate industries because much needed satellites for thousands of applications will use cable as back-up, but fear of the ‘dark angel” threat makes satellites that much more necessary and profitable). But the miracle of CNT for many applications, like football helmets, strong and lightweight means you don’t have to sacrifice head injuries for neck injuries, and vice versa, engines for cars, etc., we can capitalize with our industrial democracy corporation (IDC) in the making for instant cash-flow even before the SH and elevators deploy with the many profitable satellite missions that bring in possibly the highest return-on-investment ever!
For a 3 mm diameter polymer/CNT-reinforced hose, with 2.8 mm inner diameter hollow region, hence, 0.1 mm non-gas-permeable polymer, the following calculations are used to show the SH can be light enough for under 20 launches/payloads for the Pearson 100,000 km-high orbit, most common “maximum” anticipated longest hose length for highly-eccentric orbit (very flat, wide ellipse) and enough momentum, without rocket fuel, to send space craft up to Jupiter for gravitational “catapult” effect, and true deep-space missions well beyond solar system:
Density = 1.6 g/cm ^ 3,
1 cm = 10 mm,
1 cm ^ 3 = 1,000 mm,
0.0016 g/mm^3 x 3.1415 x (0.1 um = 0.0001 mm) (OD diameter CNT thread) x 1,000 mm/1 m x 1,000 m/1 km = 0.50264 g/km (weight),
Pearson Orbit weight: 100,000 km x weight/km x 16 (for 16 threads in hose) = 804.224 kg = 0.804 metric tons;
Polymer (eg.Kevlar, HDPE):
Density = 1.44 g/cm ^ 3,
0.0014 g/mm^3 x 3.1415 x (1.5^2 mm [outer radius of hose, total wall thickness = 1 mm] – 1.3^2 mm [inner radius of hose = 1.3 mm]) x 1,000 mm/1 m x 1,000 m/1 km = 2,462.936 g/km (weight),
Pearson Orbit weight: 100,000 km x (weight/km = 1.75924 kg) = 246,936 kg = 246.936 metric tons,
Total: 248 metric tons => about 20 rocket launches to SS, or 8 (GEO) when space elevator carries extra hosing without launches.
The Atlas V 402 can lift 12.5 metric tons, or 12,000 kilograms, with 14 metric tons reported for bigger rockets. This means 1-3 trips to engage first into GEO to unfurl the first spool of 36,000 km of 3 mm of hose/cable, but the tensile strength of CNT is so high, we can probably get the wall thickness down to 0.5 cm, and anticipate a very long life-span if and only if my 24/7 H2/O2 GPS-corrected rocket propellant position correction idea flies with the joint venture capitalists (JVC’s), but I’m sure this will make the Japanese CNT-space contingencies very happy, as they were willing to spend $500 billion until GoogleX dashed their hopes with the breakage study. The first cable, adjusted for 0.5 cm wall thickness and increasing from 4 cm to 6 cm in total diameter for the counter-weight effect, can be 50,000 km long total, launched one time with a V 402 rocket, and a second trip, by elevator, not necessarily a second rocket, can add second hose for Pearson orbit. I am not a metallurgist or chemist, a physicist mind you, but while breaking length is now negligible because of my proposed permanent slack in hose/cable, the decreased expense in a hollow cable might be offset by the production cost of extruding CNT with a hollow center. If the industry is doing well because of the “you win, I win” benefits of the CNT for other things, they can be mass-produced in a tax-diminishing society cheaper and terrestrial applications can fund our efforts, the way we’re trying to do it with donations, where there will be a raffle for donors to be considered as space tourists (see Donate/lottery), products, etc., and I will add to it a foreign business license with stock options, instant profit sharing (see Become a Member and Profit!, job opportunities as well) with “industry merging” and all online revenue collections, lotteries, charging memberships (we can be affiliates to each other, the way I am encouraging people to promote the URL “SpaceHose.com” with your own creative logo, with your own memorabilia) and be rewarded affiliate commission, online gaming, sell CPC/CPM advertising on Web pages, video, or even in space, etc., many great ideas, but the key is paying for advertising, especially as a start-up. I can probably get Facebook advertising, the charge as little as 0.0003 cents/impression, if I pool together many investors. My other advertising websites “integration of the best ideas” – https://www.PandaBusters.com (available now), https://www.InvestorCommune.com, and https://www.MyRatingSearch.com (under construction) will allow us to promote this portal and yours to sell what we all want to sell and raise capital for a much needed space race.
As back-up for the possibility of the loss of rocket fuel to guarantee slack in hose and 24/7 H2/O2 propulsion, the CW, with enough mass and large enough radius of a “ferris wheel”, torque caused by the accelerated spin of distant weights displaced from CW center generates a perpendicular linear force, bringing the CW and hose inward. Rotated by motors from intense solar radiation causing electricity created by InGaAs multi-junction solar panels will move CW inward every 12 hours, ±3 hours, during apogee phase of elliptical orbit, then the ferris wheel can slow down .
It will be necessary to leave the solar system someday as the sun is producing too many neutrinos and will eventually explode. Changing climate and weather patterns, and sunspot increase with the other 7 planets getting warmer, means there is a need for a lot more satellites to better predict weather patterns well in advance, detect incoming asteroids and remote earth-like planets, prevent bottlenecks with cable TV/Internet/phone and all the regulations and high costs, facilitate better navigation for mapping roads, making all cars and other transport vehicles remote controlled for safer and faster service, find missing people and fugitives optically, with radar, low-light-high-sensitivity, and infrared, many more applications. With evidence for the Woodward/Mach “Stargate” Effect, travelling at relativistic speeds should be possible, taking advantage of internal non-propellant spacecraft as with the man-made flying saucers experienced by Bob Lazar in 1989 with gravity waves produced by heavy elements (Mosconium). Some propellant ejection from not only H2/O2 but U-235, for linear travel and circular oscillation to capitalize on moment of inertia and Woodward/Mach Effect, preferably near heavy objects like Jupiter, the sun, and man-made dual micro-singularities can catapult humans at relativistic (> c for reverse time-travel?) speeds, for journeys to distant planets in what will seem like a short period of time because of Lorentz time dilation. Even without planets, nuclear power along with Stanley Kuprick “ferris wheels” to simulate gravity will make it possible to live in areas outside the earth’s atmosphere and outside the solar system after the supernova.
Thank you for your participation. There is a universe of opportunities for all of us. Please sign-up our newsletter to stay abreast of earth-shaking developments as I expand our industrial democracy and seek out joint venture capitalists for what should cost under $300 million to make our dream come true.
James Dante Wood
Physicist, computer scientist, sole proprietor of SpaceHose.com