Integrating all the best ideas for a much needed space elevator for far greater safety, affordability, and now doable and easily deployed in less time… Mother Earth calling – “She’s buying a stairway to heaven”

Image result for space elevatorWelcome to the team of future thinkers, investors, and yes, astronauts (we can all go to space, one day we must!), a think tank designed to create the first space elevator (SE), deploy satellites, people, and cargo into space, what will soon be a multi-trillion dollar industry, and eliminate expensive, dangerous launches.  We must be able to have infrastructure providing lift to orbit… not expendable (even reusable does not close the equation) launches. We are open to all kinds of ideas and my idea does fall into a great solution, as the cable designed to support an elevator well beyond geosynchronous orbit, or GEO (where a space station [SS] is always in the same position relative to a fixed observer on earth) was something thought to be impossible because under gravitational pull from earth on cable, fighting equal and opposite centrifugal force (the inertial reaction, or resistance to acceleration, to the centripetal force pulling you toward the center of the earth, like when you drive your car around a corner and your body goes outward) will snap, even with the toughest of high tensile strength, low weight (density) material, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) are used. But now we’re back, as my computer modeling, employing the idea of a hollow tube or Space Hose (SH), also called the Space Elevator and Coaxial Cable with Internal Material Transportation, or SEaCCIMT for short, instead of a solid cylinder or ribbon, much lighter, the advantage of a cylinder but high-leverage ribbon (when it’s compressed and elliptical) will allow semi-permanent flow inside hose of hydrogen and oxygen to power counterweight (CW) base-station at end of hose(s) with rockets to eject propellant away from earth to prevent hose from snapping, making sure it always has a little slack, never too tight or taunt. Just as important, all major think tanks about space elevators ignored Kepler’s laws concerning any object, even if part of an elevator shaft, presumed relatively non-rigid, that will orbit around the Earth at greater time intervals, or periods, the further the object is from Earth. So rockets are needed to prevent the CW and SH from wrapping around the planet. The hose would have to extend overall to at least 60,000 miles in altitude for the CW at the end (unless hose thickens in outward direction. It would have to extend further with increasing diameter/thickness without a heavy “bulb” at the very end) to create centrifugal forces contrasting gravity, or else the assembly crashes back to earth. The initial first of three x 60,000-mile hoses is extended in different segments after numerous rocket missions where GEO SS is constructed first, both outward from the SS at GEO, and inward toward the Earth Starting Station (ESS), as rocket launches are only required for the first hose of 60,000 miles. So a 3D CNT Printinghexagonal-sided elevator is stable once two additional SH’s are dragged by first elevator upward, when only one hose is required in the beginning and the other hoses don’t require rocket launches. One hose supplies the CW rockets with oxygen, the other two hydrogen, as rocket fuel requires the 2:1 ratio of H2 to O2 for maximum (loudest) burning efficiency, and conveniently starts that way as water (H2O) at the equator of the Pacific oceans where electrolysis converts it into separate gases. An SH can eject rocket propellant inward, outward, or north, south, east, and west, while hose extensions are added, and then half the day in the lifespan of the SH assembly outward during the two apogee phases of an elliptical orbit where the CW experiences a greater force outward. The other 12 hours, H2 and O2 can be stored for the next apogee fuel ejections, or other purposes.

See Why Solid Cable Will Break, as the basis of my hollow cable or hose idea.


Image result for carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes (CNT), which can be extruded into a small, thin-walled hose.
A small capsule, either launched from Earth with SH tethered below, or assembled in space to drop SH in sections, will expel rocket propellant in 6 directions to maintain “slack” and prevent SH from breaking. Rocket firing from CW to the west is necessary, as according to Kepler’s law, the period of the orbit of CW at a greater radius (64,000 miles versus 26,500 miles for stationary GEO) is longer. Without tangential rocket emissions, the SH will wrap around the Earth.

A polymer / CNT – reinforced hose will transmit H2 and O2 through the inner cavity after electrolysis to strip two-parts hydrogen for every one part oxygen, for maximum rocket “loudness” and efficiency, separated by a viscous oil or “moving gasket”, so the ESS will use gasoline/charcoal generators to convert sea water, available in high abundance at an equatorial Pacific island or boat, with solar panels/wind turbine as backup. The moving gasket will allow a liquid diet, nitrogen, and other substances to be transported. The hose can be effectively, quickly, and inexpensively be manufactured with a 3D injection molder printer, see http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6439/5/4/40/pdf. On the other hand, you can have 3 hoses for 3 rocket-injectors, 2 H2 and 1 O2,  that eject H2/O2 propellant 10-50% of the time, mostly away from the earth, sometimes in any of 5 other perpendicular directions. “Tension” sensors, backed up by a computer that controls timed and spontaneous fuel ejections for more burnt fuel outward when there is more tension, will be necessary, with a reserve and 24/7 human surveillance. An additional set of 2 hoses can extend to a total of 60,000 miles from earth for a highly eccentric (long, flat elliptical path, or high aspect ratio) orbit, so space crafts/artificial satellites benefit from the high tangential velocity of the hose-system alone, even without fuel, and can easily be slung into an orbit to approach Jupiter and use a slingshot effect from its intense gravitational pull to go deeper and faster into outer space, well beyond Pluto. The goal, more than anything, is to prevent

Highly exaggerated elliptical orbit of CW around earth (high eccentricity, larger aspect ratio of semi-major axis versus semi-minor axis), where center of mass of the Earth is at one of two foci. Energy must be sufficient to pull CW in hundreds of miles twice a day when approaching apogee to prevent breaking. However, a highly eccentric orbit is considered to be a good thing, as: 1. The higher speed when approaching the lesser of two semi-major axis means a sling-shot effect for hurling satellites and space crafts deep into space without the need for much, if any, rocket fuel, and 2. While energy is always conserved regardless, when it comes to accelerating Ferris Wheels pulling CW inward and the less common situations where rocket fuel at the end of SH is needed for ejections, the Ferris Wheels must decelerate anyway after accelerating, which is reverse acceleration and the counterweight is pushed outward, but over a long enough period of time when approaching and leaving the semi-minor axis, that is tolerable because their will be plenty of slack in the hose

cable/hose from snapping, keeping it in a permanent bent-shape and never too taunt. The role of the 6 rockets at CW is to keep the elliptical orbit of the CW as circular as possible, or have the lowest possible eccentricity, so that a predefined minimum bend in the hose can be defined as the aspect ratio of the length of hose (60,000 miles) versus deflection from straight position, say, 500 miles, a catenary shape, which pulls the CW inward about 200 miles. 200 miles is an arbitrary “comfort zone” for a radial-direction shortening of the semi-major axis to a point less than average radius. A semi-stationary cable, by fiat, expects to have a very high orbital eccentricity such that preventing atmospheric re-entry becomes difficult at GEO, with Coriolis forces considered. But repositioning rockets, and that means lateral directions as well, can retain the desired position. In conclusion, the energy expended during two 6 hour apogee phases by the CW rockets, and/or energy from torque of “Ferris Wheels” (see Ferris Wheels) must exceed the energy of the SH centrifugal force, with increasing help from the gravity of the SH as the CW moves inward, and then must slow down, to prevent the shearing of 1-2 cm diameter hose, but not exerting too much force else causing the CW to crash back to Earth, finding an equilibrium point that may require 24/7 “eccentricity adjustment” for the most circular orbit possible. A thickening of the SH at GEO, which is COM, should be recommended if more rocket launches are affordable  (one recommendation is 11.5 cm at COM, tapering off to 5 cm at sea level and CW, but this is for a solid cylinder, not a hose. See http://wiki.c2.com/?SpaceElevator). Larger cylinders/hoses are needed to support heavier elevators, that must deploy satellites about the size of a Volkswagen, but the increased elasticity of a spiral hose means more ΔL/L tolerance for an elevator, far lighter than the total weight of the hose itself it must hold up, and less cross-sectional area is offset by what is a much lighter object I suggest to be 1-2 cm in diameter, and far less than the 100 Mega-Newtons of tension a cable would bear (think of surgical tubing for a sling-shot, far more elastic than a solid rubber tube). And future calculations prove just rocket fuel and Ferris Wheels, even as backup, are not an exclusive and legitimate insurance policy. More elasticity can help, something to be expected with a higher diameter, thin-walled hose, with a higher ratio of HDPE to CNT. The mistaken myth is that the true requirement of hose rocket emissions and torque created by Ferris Wheel counterweights is that their combined force must exceed the tension, gravity plus centrifugal force, minus the breaking force of the hose at it’s weakest part, the center of mass at GEO, with a gradual reduction in thickness and resistance to breaking in opposing directions. But this is only for a brief period of time, that will be shown by conservation of energy equations. CW rocket and Ferris Wheel torque can engage right after CW leaves perigee (closest point to Earth) for apogee (furthest point from Earth) where gravity is greater, centrifugal force is less, and wheel torque with possible H2-O2 ejection backup need not be (tension minus breaking force of SH), redefining the orbit of the SS at GEO as closer to the Earth, but compensating when leaving apogee for perigee, where necessary deceleration of CW Ferris Wheels means acceleration in the opposite direction (torque pushing CW away from Earth), which is affordable as there is so much more slack in the SH during perigee phase it can afford to be pushed outward. In essence, you strive for a man-made circular orbit. The thickening at COM does not effect the gravity plus centrifugal force high tension threat, unlike when more weight is far from the COM, but the increased number of rocket launches would probably be un-affordable unlike when you have a “kill many birds with one stone” solution. A well-made non-hollow cable could employ Ferris Wheels without the need for material transfer, but there is the danger of no-backup. 

SEaCCIMT Overview

The force produced by ejected hose rocket fuel at CW plus torque from spinning Ferris Wheels (figure left) must exceed, for a short period of time, centrifugal force just enough to allow gravity to overcome “outward” centrifugal force now causing CW to approach Earth without a tightening effect to break hose. This means you must increase the number of “artificial apogees” where SH must travel away from Earth just as often as it travels toward Earth, but in a reduced, shorter period Kepler orbit. The two approaches toward an apogee that would surely break the hose, not because of combined gravity and centrifugal force but tension from a straight, elongated, then breaking hose is prevented by a sinusoidal path. For better insurance, if combined torque and rocket force at CW exceeds tension (gravity plus centrifugal force when SH is tight) minus breaking force of hose at GEO (COM), there might be an effort to thicken SH at GEO. If hose (SH) at COM is wider (2 cm diameter, 1 mm wall thickness, versus 1 cm and 0.5 mm respectively) with more tensile strength from greater CNT concentration (95% versus 5%) the breaking force is increased 80 times, but then too many rocket trips will still be anticipated. Elasticity calculations, which applies to radial direction, can be coupled with tensile strength in perpendicular (x, y) direction, divided by density considerations (eg. low density rubber, where tensile strength in radial direction is less of a factor), might be an alternative for low diameter SH in case of rare failure of preventing tightening of hose, as a hose always intended to be a catenary need not be “tough” except for meteorite strikes and stress and strain from elevator rollers, Initial high torque, heavy CW mass can potentially bring in SH to something much less than 60,000 miles, lunar rock collection for CW, with less gravity and centrifugal forces, such that initial high torque from CW Ferris Wheel only is required briefly to allow gravity to overcome centrifugal force half the time during apogee phases


Since curve around circle
CW Ferris Wheels fighting apogee and perigee of natural elliptical orbit, to better approximate a circle, but with a sinusoidal path. The four “leaf petals” are more realistic as there will be four changes in radial direction with two apogees and two perigees

x = (R + a · sin(n·θ)) · cos(θ) + xc

y = (R + a · sin(n·θ)) · sin(θ) + yc



R is circle’s radius

a is sinusoid amplitude

θ is the parameter (angle), from 0 to 2π

xc, yc is circle’s center point

n is number of sinusoidal “leaf petals” on circle

The natural central force, beginning with Kepler, with the help of Brahe, determining all paths of a smaller object around (revolving) a much larger body to be elliptical, but explained by Newton, dictates there must be some eccentricity, it can never be circular. But the ebb and flow of rockets and spinning CW Ferris wheels will cause resistance to the more outward apogee, and resistance to the more inward perigee. These are four points where under the duress of humans and the Ferris Wheels, a circular orbit is possible, but is it desirable? The sinusoidal path requires less energy from solar panels and Ferris Wheels, and higher speeds at critical junctions means more of a sling-shot effect to send satellites deep into space with less H2 and O2. Also, much like a sailboat that “tacks”, there is hope for a Ferris Wheel spinning perpendicular to direction of revolution at the extreme east edges of petal, creating the most momentum for CW possible in eastward direction, then slowly decelerating when approaching and leaving closest point to Earth, between the lead petals, so reverse-acceleration causing presumed westward direction is actually at a high angle with respect to tangential velocity. Also, mini-Ferris Wheels mounted on the edges of the bigger Ferris wheels can accelerate in one direction, causing eastward push, change direction at the top and bottom (cancelling out any impact on up or down motion of the CW) and then accelerate the opposite direction when on the east side versus west, which is the best way to guarantee almost constant eastward push.

The hose can thicken to 500 times its ground diameter at COM, or there can be an increase in the percentage of CNT, say, from 50% to 95%, for more tensile strength, more elasticity at COM, and lower density across much of the near-COM SH. This may imply a 2.5 meter cross section at COM instead, but a lot more rocket launches will be required. Some may prefer a uniform hose to save money, with the ability to retrieve and mend it with space station space crafts. The space hose, no matter what you do, will save on the one true great expense, 99% on rocket launches alone. There will soon be a way to guarantee the entire hose will be 50%-95% CNT anyway with 3D printers (KERI of South Korea does this with 75% CNT, see https://www.keri.re.kr/html/en/ ) with the much needed backup of rocket fuel to assist Ferris Wheels, and a constant supply of oxygen and water as permanent space colonization, from my standpoint, will not risk anything life saving. The hose would have a much longer free breaking length than the solid un-tapered cylindrical cable, but all that is needed is something that allows CW rocket fuel and the torque of Ferris Wheels to overcome a small percentage of the combined total gravitational and centrifugal forces.

In addition, 24/7 H2 and O2 are not only for rocket-propelled slack of SH, but intended for fueling/refueling space crafts, oxygen and water for astronauts for long term space residency that cannot be easily recycled, as well as food capillaries, nitrogen (N2) for higher-temperature liquid freezing necessities, etc. Thinner hoses that are less likely to support liquid/solid transport are lighter and easier to launch, and can transfer H2, O2, and N2 only, with hydrogen and oxygen recombined for water at SS, and rocket fuel at the CW, for what now should be called the Hose Stabilizer (HS). Liquid and solid add weight and tension to the cable, and even though rockets will always be there for correction to too much tension, it is best not to over-challenge it. Food can otherwise be transferred by elevator, grown on a space farm easily with intense radiation and recycled carbon dioxide, with fruits/vegetables, stem-cell meat, etc.

The elevator that moves up and down the SH can compress it and move along it with rollers driven by three gasoline engines in one direction. Hypothetically, if some liquid were allowed, with hydraulic pressure pushing elevator upward with high pressure below it, suction on liquid and gas the in tube above also adding to upward momentum. A magnetic field from superconducting magnetic that has affinity for H+ atoms in inner hose (top) and repulsion from OH- molecules in inner hose (bottom), for extra lift on top of roller engines, can also increase velocity, for partial electrolysis initiated at ESS. A liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting magnet can even respond to the conduction of electricity through the CNT core of hose (carbon is highly conductive), causing speeds up to hundreds of miles an hour. With the benefit of the pinching of the motor’s rollers on the SH, causing an ellipsoidal “ribbon” effect, for a better grip, the ability to get crew/robots and cargo to GEO can occur in one to five days.

Space Hose Horizontal Cross Section 2
R = 0.5 cm, r = 0.475 cm, with no need for increasing diameter outward to create counterweight effect, as launch of heavy “bulb” or Ferris Wheels to become the very CW 60,000 miles away, causing inward push from torque is necessary backup. CNT-HDPE wall thickness is at least 0.5-1.0 mm. The “pinching” effect of rollers from the elevator give hose elliptical ribbon shape, giving elevator more leverage, with need for rollers only in one direction. Repairs on tubes that may puncture with loss of very small H2 molecules are easily done when you have 2 backup hoses, as one must consider wear, stress, and strain from elevator rollers and meteorites. But with a constant slack in the hose, the elasticity and therefore durability of the hose from meteorite strikes is greater. As the diameter goes up with a fixed wall thickness, the weight, per unit length, goes up by  Π x (R^2 – r^2) x Length, so a bigger diameter hose, with a bigger inner diameter for more fuel transport , goes up in fuel weight by r^2, increasing at more of a rate than R^2 – r^2 (R – r = constant), so the average density of the SH becomes less, with more of a pinched gripping effect for rollers, and more elastic. A bigger hose may be worth the extra number of rocket launches




Space Hose Along Axs with ConnectorKevlar was once considered as a cheaper, more readily available exclusive substitute for CNT, with more elasticity, but because conventional Kevlar has about 1/18 the tensile strength/density ratio of CNT (3.62 GPa vs. 62 GPa), it would be impractical as a non-hose cable, because of the extra weight required to overcome breaking length limitations. The proposed new polymer substitute is high-density polyethylene (HDPE) which is non-H2 permeable. Both have about the same density, 1.6 g/cm^3 for CNT, 1.44 g/cm^3 for Kevlar/HDPE. The break would most likely occur in the middle, which can be thicker, but would require 2.4 to 2,441-times more dense a cross-sectional region, based on the “free breaking length” which is the length the equivalent solid cylinder that would break under it’s own gravity, even with a breaking length at 1/10 the total distance, yielding the 2,441 figure. Software modeling/simulations cannot develop a solid cable concept, low-weight and affordable enough, where you can assure safety from too-many possible bottle-necks. The increase in the size of hose, which need not be 2,441 more dense thanks to fuel emission outward during near-apogee, can slowly become smaller out toward the CW orbit. In addition to the threat of a longer hose assembly breaking because of a potential delay of H2 and O2, solar-powered “Ferris Wheels” (see below) will provide some of the necessary backup. The CW can be a second space station, like the one at GEO. Multi-threading was another proposal, well beyond the three I proposed, but too many threads if solid cylinders are required for a reasonably small elevator presenting great expense, time delays, and most importantly, you’re just increasing the weight-centrifugal force opposition by the factor of the same additional threads. Three times the number of rocket payloads, with the first hose/cable necessary for one of three of six sides of the elevator (skip each corner of hexagon), are unnecessary as the additional two hose/cables can be dragged from the earth base-station that can thread the additional two “corners” of the hexagonal outer-elevator and guarantee longer hose/cable-complex lifespan, most importantly, it means maximum safety. Unless the hose thickens outward to capitalize on centrifugal force, there will be a need for a large counterweight (CW) that must be launched as usable dead weight at the end, under 60,000 miles away from earth unless it is uniform), with elevator missions as the best option for dragging additional cables, even if CW has not be created, as rocket fuel can eject emissions as backup, toward earth at GEO until more elevator missions extend cable outward from GEO, and then inward toward Earth to complete third segment, until CW-effect is completed, eliminating more rocket launches. It’s predecessor can be mass-produced as wireless coaxial cables for cable TV/Internet are now ramping up in China (and we can consolidate industries because much needed satellites for thousands of applications will use cable as back-up, but fear of the “dark angel” threat makes satellites that much more necessary and profitable. But the miracle of CNT for many applications, like football helmets, strong and lightweight means you don’t have to sacrifice head injuries for neck injuries, and vice versa, engines and other parts for cars, $4,000 1,000 square foot houses, etc., made possible with 3D printers, we can capitalize with our weighted-average industrial democracy corporation (IDC) in the making for instant cash-flow even before the SH and elevators deploy with the many profitable satellite missions that bring in possibly the highest return-on-investment ever!

Space Hose cross section
Polymer/Kevlar hose, reinforced, or impregnated with 100 nm CNT tubing. Walls can be as little as 0.5 mm thick, and non-gas-permeable, for total diameter of preferably 3 mm but very low total density for low weight, high inner-diameter for maximum flow of matter, and low number of launches to complete section up to GEO. CNT in it’s natural state is a cylinder, with 100 nm diameter fibers extremely strong, but could be grown in HDPE with inner diameter any size desired.

For a 1 cm diameter polymer/CNT-reinforced hose, with 0.975 cm inner diameter hollow region, hence, a 0.5 mm thick wall (about the length of an ant) non-H2-gas-permeable polymer, the following calculations are used to show the SH can be light enough for under 25 launches/payloads for the 180,000 miles of hosing, to get started, SS construction as well. While CNT combined with a hose means more elasticity in the radial SH direction, more tensile strength in the x and y (perpendicular to hose) directions, and less need for a much greater thickening of the hose at COM one should understand two aspects of the CNT fabrication:

The hose will hypothetically be up to 75% CNT, 25% HDPE for now, which leads to the following calculations, and a compromise between diameter = 1 cm, wall thickness = 0.5 mm, leading to the following calculations for the hose to sum-up weight of SH:

Density = 1.4 g / cm ^ 3;
Density = 0.941 g / cm ^ 3;
=> Avg. Density = 1.3 g / cm ^ 3;

1 cm = 10 mm,
1 cm ^ 3 = 1,000 mm ^ 3,

1.3 g / cm ^ 3 x 1 kg / 1,000 g   x    1 cm ^ 3 / (0.01 m ) ^ 3 = 1.3 x 0.0001 x 1/ 1,000 = 0.13 kg / m^3;

(0.005 ^ 2 – 0.00475 ^ 2) x 3.1415 = 0.00076574 m ^ 2 x 60,000 mi x 1.62 km / mi x 1,000 m / km = volume of SH = 744.3 m ^ 3;

0.13 kg / m ^ 3 x 744.3 m ^ 3 = 96.76 kg;

Cross-sectional area = 0.0000076574 m ^ 2;

Maximum stress = F / Cross-sectional area = 123,066,000 kg / m x s ^ 2 = 123 MPa;

Minimum stress to break SW CNT = 25 GPa;

g is the acceleration along the radius (m·s−2),

S is the cross-section area of the cable at any given point r, (m2) and dS its variation (m2 as well),

ρ is the density of the material used for the cable (kg·m−3).

σ is the stress the cross-section area can bear without yielding (N·m−2=kg·m−1·s−2), its elastic limit.

ω is Earth’s rotation speed (radian/s)

To compare materials, the specific strength of the material for the space elevator can be expressed in terms of the characteristic length, or “free breaking length”: the length of an un-tapered cylindrical cable at which it will break under its own weight under constant gravity. For a given material, that

S(1) = S(0) * e ^ ρ *  g(0) * r (0) / σ (1 + ½ * x – 3/2 * x ^ 1/3);

x = ω ^ 2 * r(0) / g(0) = 0.0035;

L( c ) = σ / ρ * g (0);

Δ Ln (S) = r (0) / x (0) * (1 + ½ * x – 3/2 * x ^ 1/3);

L ( c ) = 123,066,000 kg / m * s ^ 2 / 0.13 kg / m ^ 3 * 9.8 m / s ^ 2 = 96,598,000 m = 58,925 miles (this is beyond the COM and almost equal to maximum length of SH, so for lightest and smallest possible SH, anticipate no breaking with un-tapered hollow cylinder, only one rocket launch is required). 3 to 6 SH’s can easily be transported, along with material for SS, in one rocket mission.

Dragging missions can also be cut to a 1/3 of the work if safety/feasibility testing shows the same smaller/lighter hoses can be used. The 96.76 kg figure does not include weight of SS, CW (but CW can be brought to 37,000 mile mark, whose constituents come from the Moon where the escape velocity on the Moon is many times less than the Earth, to cut SH length to 2/3 total length, and wall thickness to 0.5 mm, means a best-case total weight of about 65 kg, with much lighter Moon mining equipment sent to Moon for much cheaper rocket launches back to CW for CW construction). This means a maximum total tension of 123 MPa (when adding counterweight, total weight plus equal and opposite centrifugal force), where 30 to 50 GPa are usually needed to break a SW CNT tube, and the element added that is z-axis (radial direction) elasticity, very low elasticity or high tensile strength in x-y (N-S-E-W) directions, and designing a hose that thickens toward the COM, without effecting the above tension figures, means a stand-alone hose may not need rocket emissions or Ferris Wheel torque to avoid breaking, but it must be a hose instead of a cable just from the benefit of radial elasticity being a good thing, along with needed transportation of materials for more active astronauts.

Space elevator
Space elevator, rolling upward/downward with motorized rollers, when going up, suction on top, pressure from bottom, for extra hydraulic push/pull, and magnetic field with affinity for H+ atoms on top, repelling OH- atoms on bottom, suspended in semi-aqueous/vapor solutions. This will reduce roller-induced fatigue on hose and be more energy efficient, less gasoline needed for long trips, with intense cosmic sun rays, above 130 km, producing enough electricity for freezing N2 for super-conductor. This diagram is exaggerated for what should be six-sides, not four, and absence of liquid H2 and O2, gas only, with the superconductor moving because of CNT electricity conduction may better serve the purpose of moving elevators at high speeds, magnetically levitated for the same speeds as high speed trains

The Falcon Heavy rocket, with reusable side boosters, costs $90 million. For a fully expendable variant of the rocket, which can lift a theoretical maximum of 64 tons to low-Earth orbit, or 58 metric tons, the price is $150 million. While it is not certified yet, SpaceX says its rocket can hit all Department of Defense reference orbits, however big and gnarly the military wants to build its satellites, and whatever crazy orbit it wants to put them into, the Falcon Heavy can do it. This means about 1-3 trips to engage first into GEO to unfurl the first spools of 37,000 to 60,000 miles of 1 cm diameter/0.5 mm thick-wall of hose/cable, not counting rocket missions to build SS, CW, and the 1/3 reduction for the same number of rocket missions assumes CW is built with Moon-mined materials. There is the additional cost, of course, of building ESS with multiple elevators, a moon station, and the cost of fabricating 37,000 to 180,000 miles of hosing. The minimum total cost for rocket missions would be $150 million (for SpaceX, but competition from other sources, like the Chinese Space Program, could cause the prices to become much less expensive), so we will spend far less than a proposed CNT-space contingency, Obayashi, who are willing to spend $500 billion without a doable model, proposed to be built by 2050, even after GoogleX dashed others’ hopes in 2012 with the 1-meter breakage study for a single high tensile-strength, low density CNT-only solid cable. I am not a metallurgist or chemist, a physicist mind you, but while breaking length is now negligible because of my proposed permanent slack in hose/cable, the decreased expense in a hollow cable might be offset by the production cost of extruding CNT with a hollow center. If the industry is doing well because of the “you win, I win” benefits of the CNT for other things, they can be mass-produced in a tax-diminishing society cheaper and terrestrial applications can fund our efforts, the way we’re trying to do it with donations, where there will be a raffle for donors to be considered as space tourists (see Donate/lottery), products, etc., and I will add to it a foreign business license with stock options, instant profit sharing (see Become a Member and Profit!, job opportunities as well) with “industry merging” and all online revenue collections, lotteries, charging memberships (we can be affiliates to each other, the way I am encouraging people to promote the URL “SpaceHose.com” with your own creative logo, with your own memorabilia) and be rewarded affiliate commission, online gaming, sell CPC/CPM advertising on Web pages, video, or even in space, etc., many great ideas, but the key is paying for advertising, especially as a start-up. I can probably get Facebook advertising, the charge as little as 0.0003 cents/impression, if I pool together many investors. My other advertising websites “integration of the best ideas” – https://www.PandaBusters.com (available now, multi-tier affiliate programs with high search engine rankings), https://www.InvestorCommune.com, and https://www.MyRatingSearch.com (under construction) will allow us to promote this portal and yours to sell what we all want to sell and raise capital for a much needed space race.

See Ferris Wheels for what can be a more practical quasi-permanent backup for ensuring SH never becomes too tight. The space elevators will be cheap enough such that four can be constructed at near 90-degree angles to each other on the equator on the ocean with boats for ESS (Micronesia, or west Pacific, Easter Island, or east Pacific, the Atlantic Ocean, and the west Indian Ocean, near Sri Lanka) and tethered together at the CW’s, so less fuel/torque will be needed for defying Kepler’s orbit, and two SH’s being pulled inward by perigee will compensate for apogee phases for two other SH’s being tugged outward.

All suns eventually explode, like our own, in what’s called a “supernova”.

It will be necessary to leave the solar system someday as the sun is producing too many neutrinos and will eventually explode. Changing climate and weather patterns, and sunspot increase with the other 7 planets getting warmer, means there is a need for a lot more satellites for high-resolution Doppler to better predict weather patterns well in advance, detect incoming asteroids and remote earth-like planets, prevent bottlenecks with cable TV/Internet/cell phone services, useful in the many remote rural areas where terrestrial repeaters are too expensive and take too long to build, without all the regulations and politics, facilitate better navigation for mapping roads, making all cars and other transport vehicles remote controlled for safer and faster service (high resolution for critical mass, or volume times density of vehicles achieved with satellite network, so defiance by terrestrial cell phone repeater firms that will not unite to share bandwidth from greed will be overcome) now find missing people and fugitives optically, with radar, low-light-high-sensitivity, and infrared, assist those with health needs, victims of natural disasters, etc.

With evidence for the Woodward/Mach “Stargate” Effect, traveling at near-relativistic speeds should be possible, taking advantage of internal non-propellant spacecraft as with the man-made flying saucers experienced by Bob Lazar in 1989 with gravity waves produced by heavy elements (Moscovium). Some propellant ejection from not only H2/O2 but U-235, for linear travel and circular oscillation to capitalize on Bernoulli air foil effect in atmosphere, moment of inertia and Woodward/Mach Effect, preferably near heavy objects like Jupiter, the sun, and man-made dual micro-singularities can catapult humans at relativistic (> c for reverse time-travel?) speeds, for journeys to distant planets in what will seem like a short period of time because of Lorentz time dilation. Even without planets, nuclear power along with Stanley Kuprick’s “Ferris Wheels” to simulate gravity, as weightlessness is never good for the body long term, will make it possible to live in areas outside the earth’s atmosphere and outside the solar system after the supernova.

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The obstacles to a space elevator, now that breaking issues have been addressed, include meteorite strikes, lightening, the bending of the SH from Coriolis forces (forces caused by rotating Earth), lightening, acid rain, high outer space temperatures, wear and tear from rollers/brakes applied to SH. However, tensile strength and elasticity will again show that the life-span of the SH will probably be longer than expected where all these factors are concerned. The threat of a hose coming back to Earth at high velocity can be prepared for with a transducer disengaging the SH at a locking-junction about a mile high (a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean along the equator, far from populated islands, is the best choice for ESS with less of a risk of a human being injured or killed). Centrifugal force with, and again the reason the umbilical for H2-O2 is essential, the ability to pull hose away from Earth if broken, with robot-spacecrafts that can be placed permanently in space to recover damaged or broken hose means recycling is always an option. There will be the purchase of a lot of insurance, and voluntary computer simulations will seriously defray the cost of project.



James Dante Wood

Physicist, computer scientist, sole proprietor of SpaceHose.com