Kevlar was once considered as a cheaper, more readily available exclusive substitute for CNT, with more elasticity, but because conventional Kevlar has about 1/18 the tensile strength/density ratio of CNT (3.62 GPa vs. 62 GPa), it would be impractical as a non-hose cable, because of the extra weight required to overcome breaking length limitations. The proposed new filler for a dense carbon matrix – PVP or providone, and possibly silicone, both with a melting point of 300° to withstand the temperature of outer space, 250°, and are non-H2 permeable. Both have about the same density, 1.2 g/cm^3 for PVP, and 1.1 g/cm^3 for silicone. The break would most likely occur in the middle, which can be thicker, but would require 2.4 to 2,441-times more dense a cross-sectional region, based on the “free breaking length” which is the length the equivalent solid cylinder that would break under it’s own gravity, even with a breaking length at 1/10 the total distance, yielding the 2,441 figure. Software modeling/simulations cannot develop a solid cable concept, low-weight and affordable enough, where you can assure safety from too-many possible bottle-necks. The increase in the size of hose, which need not be 2,441 more dense thanks to fuel emission outward during near-apogee, can slowly become smaller out toward the CW orbit. In addition to the threat of a longer hose assembly breaking because of a potential delay of H2 and O2, solar-powered “Ferris Wheels” (see below) will provide some of the necessary backup. The CW can be a second space station, like the one at GEO. Multi-threading was another proposal, well beyond the three I proposed, but too many threads if solid cylinders are required for a reasonably small elevator presenting great expense, time delays, and most importantly, you’re just increasing the weight-centrifugal force opposition by the factor of the same additional threads. Three times the number of rocket payloads, with the first hose/cable necessary for one of three of six sides of
the elevator (skip each corner of hexagon), are unnecessary as the additional two hose/cables can be dragged from the earth base-station that can thread the additional two “corners” of the hexagonal outer-elevator and guarantee longer hose/cable-complex lifespan, most importantly, it means maximum safety. Unless the hose thickens outward to capitalize on centrifugal force, there will be a need for a large counterweight (CW) that must be launched as usable dead weight at the end, under 60,000 miles away from earth unless it is uniform), with elevator missions as the best option for dragging additional cables, even if CW has not be created, as rocket fuel can eject emissions as backup, toward earth at GEO until more elevator missions extend cable outward from GEO, and then inward toward Earth to complete third segment, until CW-effect is completed, eliminating more rocket launches. It’s predecessor can be mass-produced as wireless coaxial cables for cable TV/Internet are now ramping up in China (and we can consolidate industries because
much needed satellites for thousands of applications will use cable as back-up, but fear of the “dark angel” threat makes satellites that much more necessary and profitable. But the miracle of CNT for many applications, like football helmets, strong and lightweight means you don’t have to sacrifice head injuries for neck injuries, and vice versa, engines and other parts for cars, $4,000 1,000 square foot houses, etc., made possible with 3D printers, we can capitalize with our weighted-average industrial democracy corporation (IDC) in the making for instant cash-flow even before the SH and elevators deploy with the many profitable satellite missions that bring in possibly the highest return-on-investment ever!
Hysteresis (above) or elastic history of any substance. No substance is 100% elastic or brittle, everything is slightly ductile. So while a single crystal graphene hose or cylinder will not break at first, over time it will, unless you use backup from rockets and spinning Ferris or “Kuprick” wheels creating inward torque.